Climate VS. Weather
The difference between climate and weather is the base unit of time. Weather is the short term, day to day conditions of the atmosphere. We usually refer to weather in temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility and wind. Climate is weather combined and averaged over a duration of time, usually 30 years. When talking about climate we often think about cycles of variability including: wind patterns, ocean surface temperatures, precipitation over the equatorial pacific and long term or permanent climate changes
Australia's Seasonal Variations
Australia experiences a diversity of climate changes due to its size.
Seasons in Australia:
Summer - December to February
Autumn - March to May
Winter - June to August
Spring - September to November
There are 6 climatic zones which is made into 2 main seasonal patterns which are:
Temperature Zone - Summer/Autumn/Winter/Spring which affects the desert and grassland/Savannah climatic zones. which are the coast of New South Wales, most of Victoria, Tasmania, south east of South Australia and south west of Western Australia.
Tropical Seasons - Wet/Dry pattern which includes Equatorial (Cape York, Bathurst and Melville Islands north of Darwin), Tropical (Northern Australia eg. Cape York, Gulf of Carpentaria and the Kimberly region) and Sub-Tropical (Coastal and inland of Queensland, northern areas of New South Wales and the coastal fringe of Western Australia) zones.
In the Capital cities: Sydney, Perth, Canberra, Hobart, and Adelaide have an average temperature of: in Summer - minimum 16 degrees and maximum 26 degrees. In Winter - minimum 6 degrees and maximum 14 degrees. In Brisbane the average temperatures are: min. 16 degrees and max. 25 degrees. Darwin's average temperatures are: min. 23 and max, 32 degrees. In Alice Springs they are: min. 20 degrees and max. 32 degrees.
Lightweights during summer months with warmer clothes for the cooler period for most southern states. Central/Northern states - wear lightweight clothes all year round with warm clothes for cooler winter evenings and early mornings. During summer months in the south and all year round for the north, a good idea would be sun glasses, sunhats and sunscreen. Casual is the way to go in Aus with shorts, a t-shirt and thongs!
Click Here for more information on Australian weather and climate:
Adelaide - Tends to get quite chilly during winter but can get extremely hot during the day but once the sun goes down temperatures change dramatically.
Brisbane - Is known for its pleasant weather. Hot summers, warm winters and sunshine all year, Brisbane is Australia's 'Sunshine State'.
Hobart - Is the coolest region in Australia as it receives a cool breeze from Antarctica. Hobart has more defined seasons and the weather is quite unpredictable. Winter is often sunny but sometimes has a mix of all four seasons. Best to wear layers so you can easily strip off.
Melbourne - Has unpredictable weather changes in short periods of time. It is famous for having 'all four seasons in one day'.
Perth - Is Australia's second sunniest state. Summer is always sunny, dry and hot while winter is wet and mildly cold.
Sydney - receives cool sea breeze, rainfall more frequent and more higher. There summers are hot and winters are mild.
Darwin - Is a wet and dry area. Cool weather in mornings and nights. It comes 'alive' during the day, so head outside as Darwin is one of Australia's hottest spots.
The northern section has a more tropical influenced climate. The southern areas have more temperate to warm. Outback areas are really hot and may not rain for years.
VARIATIONS IN WEATHER
Fronts occur when 2 large masses of air collide at the earth's surface. Warm fronts produce clouds when warm air replaces cold air by sliding above it. Cold fronts occur when heavy cold air displaces lighter warmer air, pushing it upwards.
Interesting fact: The lowest air pressure in the world occurred in an intense tropical cyclone!
Areas of high and low pressure are caused by ascending and descending air. As air warms, it ascends leading to low pressure at the surface. As air cools, it descends leading to high pressure at the surface.
Interesting Fact: The highest surface air pressures occur in Asia and North America in winter as cold air masses form and are very deep.
La Nina is when the air pressure is warmer then normal and when the sea-surface temperatures rise. It causes a downpour of rain, which eventually turns into flooding. La Nina events can last from 1 to 3 years, unlike an El Nino event which lasts no longer than 1 year.
A El Nino is when the air pressure is lower then normal which tends to lead increased rainfall. A El Nino event describes the unusual warming of surface waters. It impacts ocean temperatures, the speed and the strength of ocean currents.
A Sample Synoptic of Australian Weather
Saturday 22:00 EST
"Southerly winds will bring a few light showers to the Queensland coast, Victoria and southern New South Wales. A weak cold front will generate a few showers in Tasmania, mainly late in the day. A large high will keep elsewhere in the nation, while leading to cold and foggy mornings over South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales."
This is a very detailed description of what was happening in Australia on a recent Saturday. This displays we are having cold mornings right now and they will most likely stay for a while longer. Some states are having small showers but other then that, it is nice weather in Australia.